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The Conversation UK receives funding from Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmée Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members.

View the full list Radiocarbon dating has transformed our understanding of the past 50,000 years.

Professor Willard Libby produced the first radiocarbon dates in 1949 and was later awarded the Nobel Prize for his efforts.

Radiocarbon dating works by comparing the three different isotopes of carbon.

"Everything which has come down to us from heathendom is wrapped in a thick fog; it belongs to a space of time we cannot measure.

We know that it is older than Christendom, but whether by a couple of years or a couple of centuries, or even by more than a millenium, we can do no more than guess." [Rasmus Nyerup, (Danish antiquarian), 1802 (in Trigger, 19)].

Negative ions produced on the surface of the sample are extracted from the ion source and sent down the evacuated beam line towards the first magnet.

At this point the beam is about 10 microamps which corresponds to 10 ions per second (mostly the stable isotopes).

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Oakley (1979) suggested its development meant an almost complete re-writing of the evolution and cultural emergence of the human species.

The following is a brief description of each element of the AMS system.

The ion source produces a beam of ions (atoms that carry an electrical charge) from a few milligrams of solid material.

The element is first chemically extracted from the sample (for example, a rock, rain water, a meteorite) then it is loaded into a copper holder and inserted into the ion source through a vacuum lock.

Atoms are sputtered from the sample by cesium ions which are produced on a hot spherical ionizer and focused to a small spot on the sample.

We should look these findings with Istanbul Yarımburgaz Cave Culture (dated 400.000 BP) and Erenköy finds (Bittel,1934) (pre-acheulean).

So, I think the period of our artifacts are lower paleolithic, if they are real.

II- I think It is a little bit difficult to apply dating methods in England. Although this difficulty, We could think this possibility. In Marmara Sea we have new cores with lacustrine sediment containing shells next to tephra layers dated by wood.

Because they haven't been approved as artifact yet. III- When ı contact the universities for dating methods, I will suggest your methods to establish this facility in these universities. These may provide a more accurate reservoir correction value for the late Pleistocene interval.

At PRIME Lab we measure six different cosmogenic radionuclides.

They are used for a wide variety of dating and tracing applications in the geological and planetary sciences, archaeology, and biomedicine.

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